One learning session
Interactive Multimedia CD-ROM
The intended delivery context is face-to-face in a computer-based
learning environment. The sixteen POE tasks took approximately
120 minutes to complete. Students could also use the CD-ROM
outside of class time, although the presence of a teacher
is highly recommended.
First year undergraduate science students. The program is
also useful for Science Education students.
The learning design was originally designed for 25-30 students
working collaboratively in pairs at the computer.
The program could be used before formal instruction as a diagnostic
probe of students pre-instructional science conceptions.
Follow up activities (tutorials, practical exercises, etc.)
informed by the students responses to these tasks are
necessary for further conceptual development. The design could
also be used as a summative assessment tool or simply as part
of a planned series of learning activities midway through
a unit of study.
The collaborative use of the POE computer tasks is designed
to facilitate peer discussions and promote conceptual development
and consensual meaning-making in the domain of science by
one or more of the following:
- Articulation and justification of a students own
- Reflection on the viability of other students ideas.
- Critical reflection on a students own ideas.
- Construction and negotiation of new ideas.
The program also:
- Assists students to articulate, justify and critically
reflect on their own and their partners science conceptions,
providing the opportunity for consensual meaning-making
and to become aware of their own alternative conceptions.
- Facilitates development of students science discourse
skills and provides students with an opportunity to engage
in science talk (Lemke, 1990; Pea, 1993)
- Facilitates development of students science process
skills (predicting, observing, etc.)
- Stimulates student interest and fosters awareness and
appreciation of the integral relationship between science
and the students everyday lives (especially through
the challenging, real-world contexts presented in the video
Lemke, J. (1990). Talking science: Language, learning
and values. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Pea R. (1993). Learning scientific concepts through material
and social activities: Conversational analysis meets conceptual
change. Educational Psychologist, 28(3), 265–277.
IMPLEMENTATION OF ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES
Multiple choice tests, other POE tasks (same domain but different
scenarios), concept maps or reflective journals could be used
to assess learning outcomes.
IMPORTANCE OF ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES USED
It must be noted that these tasks can actually be used as
a formative or summative assessment tool. Indeed, in the tradition
of student drawings, concept maps, student interviews etc.,
these tasks were initially designed as a formative assessment
tool and were used in the doctoral study (Kearney, 2002) as
an instrument to probe students pre-instructional science
Kearney, M. (2002). Classroom Use of multimedia-supported
predict-observe-explain tasks to elicit and promote discussion
about students’ physics conceptions. Unpublished
PhD dissertation, Perth: Curtin University of Technology.
WHY ICT IS USED
- The computer environment encourages small group use of
the POE tasks, moving away from the traditional whole-class,
teacher-led POE tasks. This has associated benefits such
as the increase in user control over the pacing through
the tasks, their viewing of the demonstrations, etc.
- The computer program effectively scaffolds the POE strategy
for the user. For example, students cannot view the demonstration
on the "observation page" without committing themselves
to a prediction and reason in preceding pages. However,
before viewing the demonstration, the program does allow
students to go back, review and if necessary edit their
predictions and reasons.
- All responses can be automatically saved, collated and
coded by the computer as a user-friendly document for subsequent
- The computer environment facilitates use of the digital
video medium and associated affordances. For example, the
medium can provide rich, real world contexts for students
to consider; it facilitates clinical, detailed user observations
through the use of the video tools (such as slow motion,
step-frame etc.); and it allows users to replay exact replicas
of demonstrations, viewed as many times as they like.
- Although not used in the current design, other digital
media such as sound and graphics could be used to present
interesting demonstrations as part of a POE strategy.
MOST IMPORTANT ICT CONTRIBUTION TO LEARNING DESIGN
The technology-mediated environment scaffolds the POE strategy
(supporting learner autonomy) and enables use of the digital